The heart is the body's pump, whose function is to maintain the constant and permanent flow of blood, which carries oxygen and nutrients to all cells of the human body and carries waste products and CO 2 to the lungs, kidneys, liver and colon, for elimination.
For the heart to function, it requires a stage of muscle relaxation, in which its chambers fill with blood and then a stage of muscle contraction, which is what allows the expulsion or mobilization of blood and extracellular fluid throughout the body.
Multiple diseases affect the length and frequency of this cycle. For what is known as diseases that cause cardiac arrhythmia.
What is a cardiac arrhythmia?
A cardiac arrhythmia is the alteration in the speed of conduction of electrical impulses generated in the heart. This can be increased, slowed or generated in a disorderly way in more than one place.
The contraction and relaxation of the heart occurs at preset time intervals, which is known as the heart rate. Roughly to simplify the electrophysiology of the heart, the cardiac cycle has two phases diastole (relaxation) and systole (contraction), one precedes the other and must have concluded before the next cycle begins, this is called heart rhythm.
10 diseases that cause cardiac arrhythmia
A cardiac arrhythmia is when the relaxation and contraction cycle is interrupted or one begins before the other ends and they lose synchrony.
1. Coronary heart disease and coronary heart attacks
When the heart suffers a heart attack, the affected cells die and are replaced by fibrous or scar tissue, this tissue does not allow the transmission or passage of electrical impulses, creating areas susceptible to rhythm disturbances or foci of cardiac arrhythmia.
During the episode of a heart attack, the heart muscle moves abnormally, considerably increasing the chances of developing arrhythmias.
2. Coronary atherosclerosis
The obstruction of the arteries of the heart by atherosclerosis cholesterol plaques causes a decrease in blood flow. What can generate irregular contraction of the wall of the heart muscle that triggers cardiac arrhythmia.
3. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
This is a congenital disease (one is born with it), in which the patient is born with an accessory pathway, or an additional pathway of conduction of electrical impulses, which generates cardiac arrhythmia.
4. High blood pressure
The increase in blood pressure or hypertension causes the heart to work more, therefore its muscular walls thicken and this thickening slows down the conduction time, favoring the appearance of cardiac arrhythmia.
5. Atrial fibrillation
The heartbeat must originate in an area called the synodal node and from there travel in an orderly fashion throughout the heart.
In atrial fibrillation, other tissues of the atrium or areas of the heart take control of the conduction and generation of the heartbeat, producing asynchronous, disorganized contractions, which trigger a cardiac arrhythmia.
The thyroid gland when it is working excessively or secreting an increased amount of thyroxine hormone, it is called hyperthyroidism.
This hormone accelerates all the metabolic functions of the body, generating an increase in the frequency of contraction of the heart or tachycardia, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias that can be fatal.
When the thyroid gland works less than normal, it secretes less tyrosine, producing a slowdown in metabolism, a decrease in heart rate and a slight decrease in cardiac contractility, which leads to cardiac arrhythmia.
8. Lyme disease
The Lyme disease is caused by the bite of an infected tick with Borrelia burgdorferi bacteria, or any of the three subtypes.
When this bacterium infects the heart, it produces Carditis or inflammation of the heart muscle, causing a blockage in the conduction of electrical impulses in the heart. The cardiac arrhythmia of Lyme disease occurs in only 1% of patients with Lyme and usually recovers after 21 days when properly treated.
9. Chagas disease
Disease Chagas disease is transmitted by the bite of an insect called chipo or bug (reduviid or triatomine) infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite enters the bloodstream and, once in contact with the cells of the heart grows and multiplies until cells dilate and cause them to lose their conduction functions, causing cardiac arrhythmia and heart dilation,
10. Dehydration and hypokalemia
The loss of electrolytes that accompany dehydration, particularly the decrease in the potassium level in cardiac cells and in the blood, produces the appearance of cardiac arrhythmia. Also its increase as well as variations in the concentration of sodium or calcium.
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